In order to avoid misunderstandings, a brief description of each of the 9 hand lines in the picture, is given below:

Line 1 = extra crease on the distal phalange (beyond the distal interphalangeal crease)
Line 2 = extra crease on the middle phalange (in 1 or more fingers)
Line 3 = single crease on the pinky finger
Line 4 = extra crease on the thumb
Line 5 = ‘hockey-stick crease’
Line 6 = simian crease
Line 7 = Sydney crease
Line 8 = transverse hypothenar crease
Line 9 = secondary creases: unusually high density

The names of the 9 disorders are:

A = Alagille syndrome (= genetic disorder related to e.g. the liver, heart & kidney)
B = Coffin-Lowry syndrome (= genetic disorder: e.g. mental problems, health)
C = Down syndrome (= genetic disorder: trisomy 21, e.g. mental handicap, health)
F = Edward syndrome (= genetic disorder: trisomy 18, e.g. low rate of survival)
D = Fetal alcohol syndrome (= caused by alcohol abuse during pregnancy)
E = Fragile-X syndrome (= genetic disorder: Xq27, e.g. mental handicap, autism)
G = Pit-Rogers-Dank syndrome (= e.g. growth disorder, mental retardation)
H = Schizophrenia (= psychiatric disorder)
I = Sickle Cell Diseases (= blood disorder)

The QUIZ-task is very simple:
‘Which line (in the picture above) belongs to which disorder?’

(You can submit your answers as a response to this blog post, but you can also discuss the details at the Modern Hand Reading Forum, at:   The ‘Weird-Hand-Lines QUIZ’ – part 2)

By the way, quite a few ”clues’ for finding the right connections are provided in the section MEDICAL HAND ANALYSIS.

28 Characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (Xq27).

How to recognize the hand in Fragile X syndrome?

Alexander Rodewald presented in 1986 the very first ‘phantom picture’ describing the typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome (e.g. including the simian crease or Sydney line). But more detailed ‘phantom pictures’ were never presented after the A. Rodewald et al. (1986) publication. However, this month (february 2010) an updated ‘phantom picture’ has become available – featuring 28 characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (+ a couple of other hand related characteristics).

What are typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome?

A common characteristic is the presence of the famous ‘simian line‘; an alternative is the presence of a Sydney line.

Here one should especially notice the fingerprints of the 3rd finger (and the 2nd + 4th finger); often these demonstrate the presence of ‘radial loop’ patterns and/or arch patterns (the normal ‘ulnar loop’ patterns are less common in Fragile X syndrome) – combined with a ‘transverse’ pattern in the palmar ridge lines in the distal palmar zone.

The palm width (hand breadth) is relatively broad, and the palm length is usually a bit short. Finger length is relatively long compared to the palm length, but slightly short compared to the palm breadth.

NOTICE: The author of the new ‘phantom picture’ for Fragile X syndrome described a specific guideline which states that in most cases of Fragile X syndrome certain combinations of the 28 characteristics are found in both the fingers AND the palm of the hand!

More details available at:
How to use the ‘simian crease’ for recognizing Fragile X syndrome?

Photo: the hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints – often seen in Fragile X syndrome.
Hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints - often seen in fragile x syndrome.

Example of a 'Moon whorl' on the palmar hypothenar zone.

The ‘Moon whorl’ a common characteristic in Down syndrome & schizophrenia

The ‘whorl on the mount of Moon’ (a.k.a. the ‘hypothenar whorl’) is known as one of the mysterious characteristics that can only sometimes be found in the human hand. In 1943 Cummins & Midlo reported in their famous ‘Finger Prints, Palms & Soles’ statistics for a sample of 1281 German males. They found the ‘true whorl’ on the hypothenar in only 0.7% of right hands and 0.5% of left hands!

What do we know about the ‘Moon whorl’?

A few quote from the original article:

“While the classic palmistry literature describes that the ‘hypothenar whorl’ (a.k.a. ‘whorl on mount of Moon’) can be recognized as a sign for finding a ‘highly imaginative person’, various scientific studies have indicated that dermatoglyphic whorls on the mount of moon are linked with Down’s syndrome + a few other medical problems.”


Another quote from the article:

“A study on the hands of 30 people with autism (25 men, 5 women) revealed a surprizing high percentage of a specific (very rare) variant of the ‘hypothenar whorl’ – the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’.”

Some examples of the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’ are presented below.
3 Examples of a variant of the 'hypothenar whorl': the 'hypothenar composite whorl'.

In the perspective of the fact that in the science of fingerprints the ‘composite whorl’ is related to the ‘double loop’, it is interesting to notice here that the new finding appears to confirm an earlier reported finding which pointed out that the hands of people with autism are often featured with a ‘double loop’ in the fingerprint of the pinky finger and the presence of 2 palmar loops below that 5th finger.

In cases you’re interested to learn more about the basics of fingerprint classification – the illustration below describes the 8 most common types of fingerprints (including: 2 ‘arch’ variants, 2 ‘loop’ variants, and 4 ‘whorl’ variants).


How fingerprinting works!
Forensic experts say: ‘fingerprints reveal more’!
A historical review of research on dermatoglyphics!

PICTURE: In the science of fingerprints ‘whorls’ is known a one of the 3 basic patterns (next to ‘loops’ and ‘arches’) – about 75% of people have at least 1 fingerprint whorl!
The whorl is known as one of the 3 most common fingerprint patterns.

The hands of Albert Einstein.

The hands of Albert Einstein.

The hands of Albert Einstein:

What do the hands of Albert Einstein reveal about his IQ, his suspected autism & his presumed left-handedness?’ The handprints were made in 1930 by Marianne Raschig, a palmist from Germany, who published the hands in her book Hand und Persönlichkeit.

Let’s take a look at these very interesting high-quality handprints of Alber Einstein.


Obviously there is little doubt that Albert Einstein had a high IQ – for Einstein has become a classic example of ‘genius’. Nevertheless, it is very hard to describe how high Einstein’s IQ really was. 160? 190? He’s IQ is unknown, and we’ll probably never know how high Einstein’s IQ really was.

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his IQ? In general, few researchers & palmists believe that high IQ can be recognized by certain hand features. Chirologist Arnold Holtzman described a few years ago that Einstein’s very short fingers (especially in his right hand – see the picture below) are related to Einstein’s genius. Holtzman writes in his book Psychodiagnostic Chirology (page 81) about short fingers: ‘individual intuitive faculties’ and ‘a cognitive style where invention expands’. Nevertheless, so far there appears to be no scientific evidence for relating Einstein’s short fingers to his high IQ.


UK researchers have said that they believe that Einstein was likely an example of Asperger syndrome (the high functioning variant of autism).

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his suspect autism? The past few decades of scientific research indicate that a ‘low 2D:4D finger ratio’ could be one of the most significant hand features related to autism. And the high quality handprints of Einstein’s hands show that Einstein had a ‘digit ratio’ of about 0.93 – just below threshold which is often seen in the hands of people who have autism or Aspergers syndrome: digit ratio = 0.94 or lower. Confirming evidence for the UK researchers who believe that Einstein had autism.


Albert Einstein was a famous ‘lefty’. He wrote with his right hand, however many believe that Einstein was a lefty who was forced to write with his right hand. Einstein is known for using his left hand a lot (for example: he smoked his pipe often with his left hand).

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his presumed left handedness? A comparison between the finger length of the right hand and the left hand reveals that the fingers of Albert Einstein’s left hand are rather remarkable longer. The biggest R-L difference can be observed in the middle finger: see the picture below. Dutch research on left handedness has indicated that when the longer fingers on the left hand are often observed in left handed people.

The handprints of Albert Einstein.

HANDPRINTS: The hands of Albert Einstein
The handprints of celebrities
How the pinky finger relates to autism
Famous finger length & digit ratio reports

A curved little finger is often seen in people who have autism or medical syndromes.

A curved little finger is often seen in people who have autism or medical syndromes.

How the ‘pinky’ (little finger) relates to autism:

The presence of small physical defects – such as a curved little finger (the ‘pinky’ or ‘pinkie’) – and the occurrence of autism often go together. This is concluded by Ozgen – Dutch researcher at the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The conclusion is the result of a meta-analysis of seven studies (published in the years: 1975-2005) in which the characteristics of 330 patients and 328 healthy controls are integrated. Ozgen became PhD on November 28, and July (2009) the results of her study are published in the journal ‘Molecular Psychiatry’.


Ozgen reports that the most significant physical defects related to autism are: (1) a ‘curved’ pinky finger, (2) toes slightly too far apart, (3) deformed ear lobes, (4) a higher palate, and (5) eyes slightly further apart.

In medical jargon the curved pinky (curved pinkie) is known as: clinodactlyly. Other common problems related to the pinky finger are: polydactyly (an extra pinky), camptodactyly (bent finger) & syndactyly (webbed fingers).

Male with curved little finger in both hands.

How surprizing is this research result on the ‘curved’ little finger really?

Maybe not so surprizing at all! For, in time a curved little finger has been related to up to over 60 medical syndromes, including: Klinefelter XXY syndrome, FAS: fetal alcohol syndrome (16% to 51%), and most common: Down syndrome (35% to 79%).

However, one should also noticed here that the ‘curved’ little finger can be seen in the hands of healthy people as well. Statistics for normal & healthy people reported for the ‘curved’ little finger vary from: 1% to 19.5%.


  • Never underestimate your little finger: the ‘pinkie’!
  • Dermatoglyphics of the little finger relate to autism
  • The length of the little finger varies among males & females
  • Palm reading & palmistry books
  • News reports about the index finger & ring finger
  • Hand problems related to the fingers: clinodactyly, syndactyly & polydactyly

    The hand.

    Psychology Research

    In 1998 neurologist Frank R. Wilson published a book titled: “The hand: how its use shapes the brain, language, and human culture”. The book was written into the premise that the hand is as much at the core of human life as the brain itself.

    The human hand appears to be a miracle of biomechanics, one of the most remarkable adaptions in the history of evolution. The hands of a concert pianist can elicit glorious sound and stir emotion; those of a surgeon can perform the most delicate operations; those of a rock climber allow him to scale a vertical mountain wall.

    In his book Wilson makes the striking claim that it is because of the unique structure of the hand and its evolution in cooperation with the brain that Homo sapiens became the most intelligent, preeminent animal on the earth. And the thumb – Wilson dedicated a full chapter to what he calls the ‘The Twenty Four Karate Thumb’ – played a major role in the evolution of human kind.

    The french sculptor César Baldaccini must have had likewise associations while making his famous sculpture ‘The Thumb’ (Le Pouce) – first presented in 1965 in Paris, today you can see it (in bronze or marble) in museums and public places all over the world – see the pictures below.

    César & his 'thumb'.The Thumb.


    The following research programs focuss on important themes in modern psychology, which are being related to various aspect of the human hand:

  • Hand features related to Autism
  • Hand features related to Neuroticism
  • Left handed & leftward hand asymmetry
  • The top 10 hand gestures you’d better get right