28 Characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (Xq27).

How to recognize the hand in Fragile X syndrome?

Alexander Rodewald presented in 1986 the very first ‘phantom picture’ describing the typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome (e.g. including the simian crease or Sydney line). But more detailed ‘phantom pictures’ were never presented after the A. Rodewald et al. (1986) publication. However, this month (february 2010) an updated ‘phantom picture’ has become available – featuring 28 characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (+ a couple of other hand related characteristics).

What are typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome?

A common characteristic is the presence of the famous ‘simian line‘; an alternative is the presence of a Sydney line.

Here one should especially notice the fingerprints of the 3rd finger (and the 2nd + 4th finger); often these demonstrate the presence of ‘radial loop’ patterns and/or arch patterns (the normal ‘ulnar loop’ patterns are less common in Fragile X syndrome) – combined with a ‘transverse’ pattern in the palmar ridge lines in the distal palmar zone.

The palm width (hand breadth) is relatively broad, and the palm length is usually a bit short. Finger length is relatively long compared to the palm length, but slightly short compared to the palm breadth.

NOTICE: The author of the new ‘phantom picture’ for Fragile X syndrome described a specific guideline which states that in most cases of Fragile X syndrome certain combinations of the 28 characteristics are found in both the fingers AND the palm of the hand!

More details available at:
How to use the ‘simian crease’ for recognizing Fragile X syndrome?

Photo: the hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints – often seen in Fragile X syndrome.
Hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints - often seen in fragile x syndrome.

What is Palmistry? - Palmistry 2010: a redefinition!

PALMISTRY 2010: What is Palmistry today?

In the early days palmistry was merely used as a ‘divination’ tool. But times have changed and so did the applications of palmistry!

Especially in Western countries the activities of the modern palmist should no longer associated with the early applications of future predictions & fortune readings. But nevertheless, today on the internet definitions of palmistry (palm reading) often merely relate to the aspect of ‘divination’. Time to present a redefinition of palmistry!

What is Palmistry in 2010?

“Palmistry is the practice (or art) of studying the hands, usually with the intent focussed on one (or more) of the following four aspects of life:

1 – health consultation, 2 – character interpretation, 3 – life purpose orientation, 4 – divination”

More details concerning each of the four types of palmistry is available here:
The basic principle of Palmistry & Palm Reading!

DERMATOGLYPHICS: An introduction to the dermatoglyphs of the human hand.

Dermatoglyphics – News, reports & research!

The word ‘dermatoglyphics‘ was introduced in 1926 by Harold Cummins – the word refers directly to the study of the patterns & characteristics of the skin ridges in the human hand (and foot). What are the basic characteristics of the dermatoglyphics in the human hand?


In most populations around the world is the ‘ulnar loop’ the most observed fingerprint pattern (see: the fingerprint of the pinky finger in the picture above). Loops are most frequently found on the little finger (and middle finger); loops are least frequently found on the pointer finger.
In some Asian populations the ‘whorl’ (see: the fingerprint of the ring finger in the picture above) is more common than the ‘ulnar loop’. Whorls are more often seen on the thumb and ring finger.
In population research usually the pointer finger demonstrates more variation than the the other fingers. For example the most common ‘ulnar loop’ is least often seen on the pointer finger, which often exhibits an other pattern such as: the ‘arch’, ‘tented arch’, ‘whorl’ or ‘radial loop’ (see: the pointer finger in the picture above).


The variations in the dermatoglyphics of the handpalm are much more complex than the variations in the fingerprints. An important element concerns the presence of the ‘palmar triradii’ (see: a, b, c, d, and t in the picture above): normally each finger is featured with a palmar triradius – triradius t belongs to the thumb (the thumb mouse – a.k.a. as the ‘thenar’, or in palmistry: ‘mount of Venus’ could be recognized as the third phalange of the thumb).
However, the number of palmar triradii varies with the presence of palmar ‘loops’ (or: palmar ‘whorls’). Usually the link between the number of fingers (D = digits), palmar triradii (T) and palmar loops (L) can be described with the following formula, which is known as the Penrose topological formula (Lionel Penrose, 1965):

T = L + D – 1

More details available via:
The function of the fingerprints & dermatoglyphics in the human hand!

Picture: example of the most common patterns in the dermatoglypics of the palm and fingers.

[NOTICE: The picture below includes a small mistake: the hand palm usually has 1 single palmar ‘loop’ featured with 5 palmar triradii – this implicate that ‘c-line’ (which starts in the triradius below the ring finger) should have ended between the pinky finger and the end of the heart line – and not between the ring finger and middle finger as indicated by the picture]

Palmar & fingerprint dermatoglyphics.