28 Characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (Xq27).

How to recognize the hand in Fragile X syndrome?

Alexander Rodewald presented in 1986 the very first ‘phantom picture’ describing the typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome (e.g. including the simian crease or Sydney line). But more detailed ‘phantom pictures’ were never presented after the A. Rodewald et al. (1986) publication. However, this month (february 2010) an updated ‘phantom picture’ has become available – featuring 28 characteristics of the hand in Fragile X syndrome (+ a couple of other hand related characteristics).

What are typical hand characteristics in Fragile X syndrome?

A common characteristic is the presence of the famous ‘simian line‘; an alternative is the presence of a Sydney line.

Here one should especially notice the fingerprints of the 3rd finger (and the 2nd + 4th finger); often these demonstrate the presence of ‘radial loop’ patterns and/or arch patterns (the normal ‘ulnar loop’ patterns are less common in Fragile X syndrome) – combined with a ‘transverse’ pattern in the palmar ridge lines in the distal palmar zone.

The palm width (hand breadth) is relatively broad, and the palm length is usually a bit short. Finger length is relatively long compared to the palm length, but slightly short compared to the palm breadth.

NOTICE: The author of the new ‘phantom picture’ for Fragile X syndrome described a specific guideline which states that in most cases of Fragile X syndrome certain combinations of the 28 characteristics are found in both the fingers AND the palm of the hand!

More details available at:
How to use the ‘simian crease’ for recognizing Fragile X syndrome?

Photo: the hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints – often seen in Fragile X syndrome.
Hand of a baby hand with hyperextensible finger joints - often seen in fragile x syndrome.

DERMATOGLYPHICS: An introduction to the dermatoglyphs of the human hand.

Dermatoglyphics – News, reports & research!

The word ‘dermatoglyphics‘ was introduced in 1926 by Harold Cummins – the word refers directly to the study of the patterns & characteristics of the skin ridges in the human hand (and foot). What are the basic characteristics of the dermatoglyphics in the human hand?


In most populations around the world is the ‘ulnar loop’ the most observed fingerprint pattern (see: the fingerprint of the pinky finger in the picture above). Loops are most frequently found on the little finger (and middle finger); loops are least frequently found on the pointer finger.
In some Asian populations the ‘whorl’ (see: the fingerprint of the ring finger in the picture above) is more common than the ‘ulnar loop’. Whorls are more often seen on the thumb and ring finger.
In population research usually the pointer finger demonstrates more variation than the the other fingers. For example the most common ‘ulnar loop’ is least often seen on the pointer finger, which often exhibits an other pattern such as: the ‘arch’, ‘tented arch’, ‘whorl’ or ‘radial loop’ (see: the pointer finger in the picture above).


The variations in the dermatoglyphics of the handpalm are much more complex than the variations in the fingerprints. An important element concerns the presence of the ‘palmar triradii’ (see: a, b, c, d, and t in the picture above): normally each finger is featured with a palmar triradius – triradius t belongs to the thumb (the thumb mouse – a.k.a. as the ‘thenar’, or in palmistry: ‘mount of Venus’ could be recognized as the third phalange of the thumb).
However, the number of palmar triradii varies with the presence of palmar ‘loops’ (or: palmar ‘whorls’). Usually the link between the number of fingers (D = digits), palmar triradii (T) and palmar loops (L) can be described with the following formula, which is known as the Penrose topological formula (Lionel Penrose, 1965):

T = L + D – 1

More details available via:
The function of the fingerprints & dermatoglyphics in the human hand!

Picture: example of the most common patterns in the dermatoglypics of the palm and fingers.

[NOTICE: The picture below includes a small mistake: the hand palm usually has 1 single palmar ‘loop’ featured with 5 palmar triradii – this implicate that ‘c-line’ (which starts in the triradius below the ring finger) should have ended between the pinky finger and the end of the heart line – and not between the ring finger and middle finger as indicated by the picture]

Palmar & fingerprint dermatoglyphics.

Example of a 'Moon whorl' on the palmar hypothenar zone.

The ‘Moon whorl’ a common characteristic in Down syndrome & schizophrenia

The ‘whorl on the mount of Moon’ (a.k.a. the ‘hypothenar whorl’) is known as one of the mysterious characteristics that can only sometimes be found in the human hand. In 1943 Cummins & Midlo reported in their famous ‘Finger Prints, Palms & Soles’ statistics for a sample of 1281 German males. They found the ‘true whorl’ on the hypothenar in only 0.7% of right hands and 0.5% of left hands!

What do we know about the ‘Moon whorl’?

A few quote from the original article:

“While the classic palmistry literature describes that the ‘hypothenar whorl’ (a.k.a. ‘whorl on mount of Moon’) can be recognized as a sign for finding a ‘highly imaginative person’, various scientific studies have indicated that dermatoglyphic whorls on the mount of moon are linked with Down’s syndrome + a few other medical problems.”


Another quote from the article:

“A study on the hands of 30 people with autism (25 men, 5 women) revealed a surprizing high percentage of a specific (very rare) variant of the ‘hypothenar whorl’ – the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’.”

Some examples of the ‘hypothenar composite whorl’ are presented below.
3 Examples of a variant of the 'hypothenar whorl': the 'hypothenar composite whorl'.

In the perspective of the fact that in the science of fingerprints the ‘composite whorl’ is related to the ‘double loop’, it is interesting to notice here that the new finding appears to confirm an earlier reported finding which pointed out that the hands of people with autism are often featured with a ‘double loop’ in the fingerprint of the pinky finger and the presence of 2 palmar loops below that 5th finger.

In cases you’re interested to learn more about the basics of fingerprint classification – the illustration below describes the 8 most common types of fingerprints (including: 2 ‘arch’ variants, 2 ‘loop’ variants, and 4 ‘whorl’ variants).


How fingerprinting works!
Forensic experts say: ‘fingerprints reveal more’!
A historical review of research on dermatoglyphics!

PICTURE: In the science of fingerprints ‘whorls’ is known a one of the 3 basic patterns (next to ‘loops’ and ‘arches’) – about 75% of people have at least 1 fingerprint whorl!
The whorl is known as one of the 3 most common fingerprint patterns.

Usain Bolt, fastest man on earth, sprint talent is in his fingers!

Usain Bolt has the marker for sprint talent: a long ring finger!

The 2008 olympics in Beijing pointed out that Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt is the fastest man on sprint ever! And last sunday he set another new world record at the Athletics World Championships 2009 Berlin. How come that Jamaican sprinters run so fast?

Earlier this year British researchers studied the hands of 241 boys aged 10 to 17 who took part in a sports talent-spotting competition in Qatar. And the results pointer out that a low 2D:4D finger ratio is linked with a fast sprint!

Professor John T. Manning (a.k.a. ‘the finger professor’) about the research:

“We found finger ratios of the right and left hand were positively linked with sprinting times in boys. The advantage they had was soon apparent after the start of the sprint and remained steady thereafter.”

Previous studies have confirmed the link between finger length and sprint talent: long-distance runners have the same hand characteristics – a ‘low 2D:4D finger ratio. But to understand the implications in this perspective one should be aware that the long ring fingers has also been linked with other ‘testosterone’ related matters such as: a lower risk of heart disease and good results in exam success in mathematics, to male aggression and higher earnings at the London Stock Exchange.

So the predictive value of a long ring finger is actually pretty, and certainly not reliable in individual subjects.

Nevertheless, John T. Manning has described in his first book – ‘Digit Ratio’ – that the hands of Jamaicans are usually featured with a relatively long ring finger – which is confirmed by various hand photos of the most successful sprinters from Jamaica (see the photo below).


The hands Usain Bolt – olympic world record holder sprint!
Usain Bolt has the long ring finger – measure for sprint talent
Finger length explains the success of Jamaican sprinters!
About finger length & athletic succes
Why Jamaican sprinters run so fast!
Jamaican samples show low 2D:4D ratio

Female sprinters from Jamaica have the long ring finger!

The right hand of Barack Obama!

Barack Obama

The right hand of George W. Bush!

George W. Bush

The right hand of Bill Clinton!

Bill Clinton

The right hand of George H.W. Bush!

George H.W. Bush

The right hand of Ronald Reagan!

Ronald Reagan

The right hand of Jimmy Carter!

Jimmy Carter

The right hand of Gerald Ford!

Gerald Ford

The right hand of Richard Nixon!

Richard Nixon

The right hand of Lyndon Johnson!

Lyndon Johnson

The right hand of John F. Kennedy!

John F. Kennedy

Presidential Palmistry Readings: how to recognize the hand of a US president?

A few weeks ago TIME.com presented a beautiful photo essay focussed on the right hand of the last 9 US presidents – including the hands of: Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Richard Nixon and Lyndon Johnson.

An american palm reading expert Robin Gile to makes some comments about the hands of all 9 presidents. His assessment was made ‘blind’ without knowing which hand belonged to which president!

Now the article is also available in a more extended form – including: the hands of John F. Kennedy, 6 hand photos of each president + an analysis of the most common hand characteristics in the presidential hands.

The new article is titled:

10 presidential US palm readings: from Barack Obama to John F. Kennedy!


The article demonstrates that all presidents appear to have a long ring finger – which is known as a typic male-like hand characteristic. Interestingly, next to the long ‘sun finger’ (a synonym for the ring finger), a high percentage of the the presidential hands is also featured with a strong, long sun line! And most of the presidents also appear to have low ‘2D:4D finger ratio’ – which is indicated by a ‘digit ratio’ (index finger vs. ring finger ratio) lower than 0.96, another typical male-like characteristic!

Beyond the results related to the ‘sun finger’ the presidential hand analysis also indicates that quite a few of these ‘presidential men’ appear to have a rather remarkable characteristic in their ‘head line’ (in the world of palmistry a.k.a. the ‘line of head’ or ‘headline’):

The Sydney Line

The Sydney line is known as a rather unusual long palmar ‘head line’ (which is usually found in less than 5% of normal populations).

The presidential photos indicate that the following 4 presidents have this unusual hand characteristic: George H.W. Bush (both hands), Jimmy Carter (both hands), Gerald Ford (both hands), and Richard Nixon (right hand only).

The double head line

The ‘double head line’ is another unusual palmar characteristic (which is also found in less than 5% of normal populations).

The presidential photos indicate that both Bill Clinton (left hand) & John F. Kennedy (right hand) have the ‘double head line’.


Palm reading & the hands of 10 US presidents!
The palmprint of Benazir Bhutto – politician from Pakistan!
The Sydney line – an underestimated hand line!
What you should know about finger length & ‘digit ratios’!
More finger length news!
More famous palmistry readings!

Five things about hands, fingers & digit ratio.

Five things about: hands, fingers & digit ratio.

What your five fingers reveal about: human evolution, sports, social behavior, disease & your sex-life:

In 2008 Professor John Manning at the University of Swansea presented the book “The Finger Book”. The book explains how the ratio of the index finger and ring finger is related to various aspects life. Let’s take a look at his major findings + developments in the ‘finger research’ – including an update from 2009!


The human thumb is known as a ‘marker’ for the evolution of human kind; however our relative long index finger – compared to the ring finger – is a likewise example. In the chimpanzee and gorilla, this hand feature is different: they always have longer ring fingers and a short index finger.


Exceptional performances in sports are being linked to the amount of male hormones that people absorb before birth while they stay in the womb. The ‘digit ratio’ has frequently been used to predict performances in various sports leagues. In this perspective another interesting research was presented in 2009:

Research from the university of Cambridge points out that financial traders with the lowest ‘2D:4D digit ratios’ have earned 11 times more money than stock traders with a relatively high finger ratio – see the picture below.

Earnings of stock traders at the London Stock Exchange appear to be related to their finger length.


Interestingly, especially among children a short index finger may indicate a lack of empathic ability. In general: the longer the index finger, the more people are inclined to learn social behavior and to develop strong empathy for the feelings of others and yourself.


There is growing statistical evidence that our finger ratios are a reliable predictor of our receptiveness to diseases. However, in real life the findings have not yet shown to have a significant impact.


Men with long ring fingers, consider themselves as attractive. Studies show that women in the general rule agree and confirm the judgements of these men. Surprisingly, a likewise result has been found in women.

The distribution of finger length ratios.

5 Things about your fingers – about: evolution, sports, social behavior, disease & your sex-life!
How index finger vs. ring finger ratio relates to financial success of London stock traders
News about your hands – wordpress blog
News about finger length & the 2D:4D digit ratio
Hand reading: the international network

Fingerprints provide finger grip + a touch-filter.

Fingerprints provide finger-grip + a touch-filter.

The function of fingerprints: ‘finger grip’ + ‘touch filter’:

Many palmists & hand analysts including the fingerprints in a hand reading. But what is the basic function of our fingerprints really?

Researchers from Paris (France) have recently presented new evidence that your fingerprints not only provide ‘finger-grip’, but the ridges also function as a filter for the human touch!

The word ‘fingerprints’ refers to the impressions made by the skin ridges on the fingers & thumbs – by the way: palms can leave the same impressions: ‘palmprints‘.

The major function of these skin ridges is to provide ‘friction’, or ‘traction’, when we grasp objects in daily life. And as a consequence because of the presence of skin ridges on our fingers & palms, objects held in our hands do not slip through our fingers.

For many years scientists believed that the fingerprints (skin ridges) have a second function: the enhancement of our sense of touch. But untill recentely there was hardly any hard evidence for this assumption. But times have changed since january 2009: French physicists at the ‘École Normale Supérieure‘ in Paris have presented new research. They found that the skin ridges (fingerprints) also amplify / filter vibrations triggered when our fingertips brush across an uneven surface. These processes help transmiting the signals of ‘touch’ to deeply embedded nerves involved in fine texture perception.

Some facts reported by the French fingerprint research:

• The researchers report that certain vibrations from the patterned fingertip are 100 times stronger than those from the smooth fingertip.

• The distinctiveness of fingerprint patterns from one person to the next does NOT(!) seem to have an effect on filtering capabilities – so regarding the sensitivity for ‘finger-touch’ it hardly makes any difference what type of fingerprints you have!

• The research was done with an ‘artificial fingertip’ – the first ever presented in the world!

Fingertips & fingerprints.

Fingerprints provide ‘finger-grip’ + a ‘touch-filter’
News about fingers & fingerprints
The history of fingerprints & dermatoglyphics
How the pinky finger relates to autism
Articles about What your finger length may reveal

The hands of Albert Einstein.

The hands of Albert Einstein.

The hands of Albert Einstein:

What do the hands of Albert Einstein reveal about his IQ, his suspected autism & his presumed left-handedness?’ The handprints were made in 1930 by Marianne Raschig, a palmist from Germany, who published the hands in her book Hand und Persönlichkeit.

Let’s take a look at these very interesting high-quality handprints of Alber Einstein.


Obviously there is little doubt that Albert Einstein had a high IQ – for Einstein has become a classic example of ‘genius’. Nevertheless, it is very hard to describe how high Einstein’s IQ really was. 160? 190? He’s IQ is unknown, and we’ll probably never know how high Einstein’s IQ really was.

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his IQ? In general, few researchers & palmists believe that high IQ can be recognized by certain hand features. Chirologist Arnold Holtzman described a few years ago that Einstein’s very short fingers (especially in his right hand – see the picture below) are related to Einstein’s genius. Holtzman writes in his book Psychodiagnostic Chirology (page 81) about short fingers: ‘individual intuitive faculties’ and ‘a cognitive style where invention expands’. Nevertheless, so far there appears to be no scientific evidence for relating Einstein’s short fingers to his high IQ.


UK researchers have said that they believe that Einstein was likely an example of Asperger syndrome (the high functioning variant of autism).

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his suspect autism? The past few decades of scientific research indicate that a ‘low 2D:4D finger ratio’ could be one of the most significant hand features related to autism. And the high quality handprints of Einstein’s hands show that Einstein had a ‘digit ratio’ of about 0.93 – just below threshold which is often seen in the hands of people who have autism or Aspergers syndrome: digit ratio = 0.94 or lower. Confirming evidence for the UK researchers who believe that Einstein had autism.


Albert Einstein was a famous ‘lefty’. He wrote with his right hand, however many believe that Einstein was a lefty who was forced to write with his right hand. Einstein is known for using his left hand a lot (for example: he smoked his pipe often with his left hand).

What do Albert Einstein’s hands reveal about his presumed left handedness? A comparison between the finger length of the right hand and the left hand reveals that the fingers of Albert Einstein’s left hand are rather remarkable longer. The biggest R-L difference can be observed in the middle finger: see the picture below. Dutch research on left handedness has indicated that when the longer fingers on the left hand are often observed in left handed people.

The handprints of Albert Einstein.

HANDPRINTS: The hands of Albert Einstein
The handprints of celebrities
How the pinky finger relates to autism
Famous finger length & digit ratio reports

A curved little finger is often seen in people who have autism or medical syndromes.

A curved little finger is often seen in people who have autism or medical syndromes.

How the ‘pinky’ (little finger) relates to autism:

The presence of small physical defects – such as a curved little finger (the ‘pinky’ or ‘pinkie’) – and the occurrence of autism often go together. This is concluded by Ozgen – Dutch researcher at the UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The conclusion is the result of a meta-analysis of seven studies (published in the years: 1975-2005) in which the characteristics of 330 patients and 328 healthy controls are integrated. Ozgen became PhD on November 28, and July (2009) the results of her study are published in the journal ‘Molecular Psychiatry’.


Ozgen reports that the most significant physical defects related to autism are: (1) a ‘curved’ pinky finger, (2) toes slightly too far apart, (3) deformed ear lobes, (4) a higher palate, and (5) eyes slightly further apart.

In medical jargon the curved pinky (curved pinkie) is known as: clinodactlyly. Other common problems related to the pinky finger are: polydactyly (an extra pinky), camptodactyly (bent finger) & syndactyly (webbed fingers).

Male with curved little finger in both hands.

How surprizing is this research result on the ‘curved’ little finger really?

Maybe not so surprizing at all! For, in time a curved little finger has been related to up to over 60 medical syndromes, including: Klinefelter XXY syndrome, FAS: fetal alcohol syndrome (16% to 51%), and most common: Down syndrome (35% to 79%).

However, one should also noticed here that the ‘curved’ little finger can be seen in the hands of healthy people as well. Statistics for normal & healthy people reported for the ‘curved’ little finger vary from: 1% to 19.5%.


  • Never underestimate your little finger: the ‘pinkie’!
  • Dermatoglyphics of the little finger relate to autism
  • The length of the little finger varies among males & females
  • Palm reading & palmistry books
  • News reports about the index finger & ring finger
  • Hand problems related to the fingers: clinodactyly, syndactyly & polydactyly